Personality Assessments look at a person’s typical or characteristic ways of thinking or behaving. Personality Assessments vary greatly in the number and range of constructs they measure, though the majority will assess aspects of the ‘big five’ personality characteristics: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. Some assessments measure a limited number of constructs, whereas others will break down higher-order constructs such as the big five into more specific facets. Within personality assessments, a distinction can be drawn between ‘type’ and ‘trait’ measures. Type measures allocate respondents to specific categories of behaviour, whereas trait measures assume behaviour varies along continua and respondents can be placed anywhere along these scales.
Personality assessments vary greatly in the number and range of constructs they measure, though the majority will assess aspects of the overarching ‘big five’ personality characteristics: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. Each of these larger constructs can be broken down to measure more specific constructs. For example, conscientiousness can be broken down into competence, order, dutifulness, achievement striving, self-discipline, and deliberation.
Within personality assessments, a distinction can be drawn between ‘type’ and ‘trait’ measures. Type measures allocate respondents to specific categories of behaviour, whereas trait measures assume behaviour varies along continua and respondents can be placed anywhere along these scales.
There are two basic types of personality tests: self-report inventories and projective tests:
Self-report inventories are easy to administer and require candidates to read questions or statements and then rate how well each one applies to them. They can be standardised which means that the conditions for scoring and interpreting the tests are consistent and done in a pre-determined manner using established norms.
They have a higher reliability and validity than projective tests.
Projective tests involve the candidate giving their interpretation of a scene, object, or scenario and as such are more subjective and less reliable. Most projective tests must be administered by someone with specific training and are most often used in psychotherapy settings allowing therapists to quickly gather a great deal of information about a client through looking at responses, tone of voice and body language.
see our Frequently Asked Questions
The Criterion Personality Questionnaire is unlike anything else on the market. We don’t subscribe to a one-size-fits-all approach to personality; the CPQ offers unparalleled flexibility by allowing you to pick and choose the elements you want to measure.
The CPQ is made up of 46 scales split across five key areas of personality at work. These elements are:
Interpersonal Style – The candidate’s approach to working with others, taps into their style of communication and preferences for working around others
Thinking Style – The candidate’s approach to tasks, decisions and challenges
Emotional Style – The candidate’s reaction to the emotional demands of the role
Motivations – Understanding what drives the candidate and helps them to feel energised and motivated at work
Culture Fit – Understanding the style of environment that is best suited to the candidate
We provide the following 3 options for you to choose from:
1. OFF-THE-SHELF OPTION
Psycruit offers two off-the-shelf personality questionnaires, both of which include a range of scales from across the five elements.
The Criterion Core (21 Scales) – Comprehensive insight into the typical preferences and tendencies for behaviours, feelings, values and motivations that are important in the workplace. This questionnaire takes about 20 minutes for the candidate to complete. Using the Core questionnaire will give you access to two specialised reports; Team Strengths Report & Sales Report.
The Criterion Enhanced (30 Scales) – Builds on the Criterion Core, offering a deeper insight across a breadth of elements of personality in an occupational setting. This questionnaire will take about 30 minutes for candidates to complete. Using it will give you access to our Leadership Report.
2. BESPOKE OPTION
Psycruit allows you to build your own personality questionnaire so you can tap directly into the traits you are interested in for the role you are recruiting for or developing. You can pick any combination of the 46 scales in the Library and structure the selection according to your own values/competency framework or use our default headings. Telling the platform ‘what good looks like’ will give you access to the Selection Report.
We now have a collection of industry specific questionnaires that are available on Psycruit. These have been developed through role research and the expert knowledge and experience of our business psychologists. All of our off the shelf questionnaires also contain the social desirability scale in addition to those scales listed below.
The Prevue Assessment was developed by Professor David Bartram and Dr Pat Lindley. It is a high quality comprehensive psychometric measure which assesses:
The Prevue Assessment has been designed to be quick and easy to use. It is useful for all occupations and can be used comfortably from age 15+.
What does the Prevue Assessment Measure?
It measures Abilities, Interests and Personality in one straightforward measure which takes about an hour to complete if handled in one sitting.
Abilities - Verbal, Numerical and Spatial Abilities – combining these to produce a general abilities scale
Motivation & Interests - the extent to which the individual is interested in working with people, data and with things
Personality – 12 scales around 4 core themes (from the “big 5” model) – Independence, Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Stability. (The subscales measure cooperativeness, assertiveness, innovation, organisation, group orientation, outgoing ness, poise and excitability.)
Social Desirability - The extent to which the individual presents a favourable picture of themselves
Mental Toughness describes the mindset that every person adopts in everything they do. It is closely related to qualities such as character, resilience, grit, etc. It is defined as: “A personality trait which determines, in large part, how people respond to challenge, stress and pressure, irrespective of their circumstances”. Most personality models and measures assess the behavioural aspects of Personality (how we act).
Mental Toughness differs in that it assesses something more fundamental – “how we think”. In other words, why we act and respond emotionally to events. It enables us to understand mindset in a very practical way. Research carried out under the direction of Professor Peter Clough of Huddersfield University identified by 2002 the four key components (constructs) of Mental Toughness. These are called the 4Cs. In 2017, work by Doug Strycharczyk, Dr John Perry and Professor Clough, allowed the concept to be expanded to eight factors to be understood and assessed around the 4Cs. This is shown below:
Mental Toughness Scale What does MTQ assess… the 8 Factors
Life Control – I really believe in myself, I can do it
Emotional Control – I can manage my emotions and the emotions of others
Goal Orientation – I set goals and like the idea of working toward goals
Achievement Orientation – I do what it takes to keep promises and achieve goals
Risk Orientation – I stretch myself, welcoming new and different experiences
Learning Orientation – I learn from what happens, including setbacks
In Abilities – I believe I have the ability to do it, or can acquire the ability
Interpersonal Confidence – I can influence others
Why is Mental Toughness important?
Published research and case studies from around the world show that Mental Toughness is a major factor in: • Performance – explaining up to 25% of the variation in performance in individuals
• Agility - Positive Behaviour – more engaged, more positive, more “can do”, dealing well with change
• Wellbeing – more contentment, better stress management, less prone to bullying
• Aspirations - more ambitious, prepared to manage more risk It is a major factor in retention, particularly in higher education, employability and is a key aspect of an organisation’s culture.
It has applications in virtually every sector. In the world of work, it is key for leadership and staff development, particularly within change programmes as well as in talent management programmes. It is also widely used for developing young people in education, in youth work and social mobility programmes.
Can we develop Mental Toughness?
We can. We can either help someone change their mental toughness or we can show someone how to adopt the behaviours that a mentally tough person would adopt. Either way, many of the benefits of developing mental toughness can be achieved.
MTQ48 is a really valuable tool. It certainly makes you think about your performance and positive behaviour – and what you can do about both. We liked the report structure which equipped the manager/coach and the individual with relevant information and practical development suggestions. -Liz Chandler Director for Corporate Development, Merseytravel
What is the Integrated Leadership Model (ILM72)?
The Integrated Leadership Model is the result of a major study carried out by AQR International in 2005. Carried out by Dr Nollaig Heffernan under the supervision and guidance of Professor Clough and Doug Strycharczyk, CEO.
The study looked at over 50 leadership models and found that all had their origins in the same components - 6 scales which represented the different aspects of leadership style.
This confirmed that the essence of leadership was consistently based on a number of key notions. The study did not develop a new model of leadership, more accurately it “brought order to the chaos that is leadership theory and practice”. Equally importantly it provided an accessible and very practical framework for understanding and developing leadership practice. Further research carried out by Clough & Strycharczyk within the same programme showed that there were three core competencies which are crucial for leadership effectiveness.
An important by-product of the programme was the development of a reliable psychometric measure - ILM72 – which assesses both the specific scales (style) and the global scales indicating leadership effectiveness. These map to almost all leadership models.
Assessing Leadership Style and Leadership Effectiveness
The ILM72 is a seventy-two item questionnaire which produces output on both leadership style and leadership effectiveness factors. The measure produces development reports for individuals, for coaches/managers as well as generating questions for reflection and understanding.
The measure can also be used to assess difference before and after an event to determine where development has occurred. Bringing effective evaluation into the picture.
A tool for organisational development
Importantly it is possible to aggregate data for a group or even a whole organisation, through an OD report, to get a picture of the prevailing leadership style – an important aspect of culture. This enables users to assess whether the given style is appropriate and exactly where leadership style might be developed. This is fundamentally important.
Participants report an increased level of selfawareness with regard to their own leadership style. The reports enable them to identify their strengths and areas for development, which are invaluable in their day to day role as a leader and in creating a personal development plan. -Sandra Keith, HRD Bristol
Evaluate emotional intelligence in the workplace
EMOTION 2 measures candidates’ and employees’ ability to understand their own emotions and their capacity to establish harmonious working relationships with others. The test provides a reliable score for an individual’s interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies by assessing 15 specific factors related to emotional intelligence.
Analysis of 5 main dimensions:
Analysis of 15 factors of emotional intelligence:
|Intra-personal Intelligence||Inter-personal Intelligence|
|Self-motivation||Dealing with diversity|
The PROFESSIONAL PROFILE 2© adopts the trait approach. This is our latest personality assessment, designed and validated with the most recent method in psychometrics, the Thurstonian IRT. It measures 14 set of dimensions in opposition (e.g. introversion vs. extraversion), thereby resulting in an analysis of 28 aspects of personality and motivations.
In addition to the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality, several established theories were used for the conceptual and practical development of the PROFESSIONAL PROFILE 2©.
Other theoretical frameworks include C.G. Jung (1971) Theory of Psychological Types; William Schutz (1958) Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation; Lee and Ashton(2004) HEXACO Model of Personality and J. Holland (1958) Occupational Themes (RIASEC)
14 sets of character traits are analysed:
Reveal a candidate’s behaviour and job compatibility
Work Profile is a personality assessment designed especially for entry-level jobs, requiring a lower level of qualifications. It is the only recruitment-based assessment to reliably measure an individual’s work personality through their workplace, social and emotional traits, as well as the values and aspirations that drive them forward. Suitable for candidates and employees with lower level qualifications.
Analysis of 15 factors split into 3 groups:
Profile matching with 6 work-focused personality types: Leader, Persistent, Conscientious, Sociable, Explorer, Innovative
ETIX evaluates the likelihood of individuals engaging in counterproductive work behaviour. It covers six behaviours relevant to today’s work environment, including discrimination, harassment, and lying. By distinguishing between a person’s attitudes towards themselves and other people, ETIX reveals not only if a person might participate in counterproductive work behaviour, but also if they might enable it in others.
Analysis of 6 dimensions of work ethics, each of which relates to a counterproductive work behaviour:
Each dimension is divided into 2 facets:
VOCATION is a career assessment based on the RIASEC model. It measures 12 interest domains and then matches the individual profile with 138 occupations, enabling the individual to pinpoint the most suitable profession that aligns with their personality.
Analysis of 12 domains outlined by the RIASEC model:
VOCATION is a fair and accurate measure of occupational and vocational preferences, and HR practitioners and psychologists can be confident of its diverse application.
Personality assessments do not require a pass or fail and there are no right or wrong answers. They simply highlight the extent to which the person has innate characteristics which the company deems as relevant to a role, or lacks innate characteristics that the company sees as detrimental to the role.
It depends. Any type of psychometric test can be biased in that the test content, or the way it is used, could put someone at an unfair disadvantage. For example, a personality test that is designed in the United Kingdom but administered in Saudi Arabia must be careful to present questions to candidates that are adapted to a Middle Eastern population. Otherwise, the test may show bias if native Saudi Arabians are unable to portray themselves accurately due to the test’s linguistic construction. Personality tests are not likely to show bias when designed and administered appropriately. Find, compare and buy personality assessments with Talent Grader to ensure that you assess the right qualities without bias.
Yes. Research has shown that practice can assist candidates in familiarising themselves with the process and the nature of the assessments, which may have a slightly beneficial impact on a candidate’s ability to portray themselves accurately
Personality tests can be used for any type of role, from senior management to customer service. For example, a change-management consultancy may wish to select for extraversion among senior consultant hires, if evidence suggests their outgoing personality increases the candidate’s likelihood of successfully liaising with somewhat difficult clients. On the other hand, a company may actively de-select more extraverted candidates for back-office accountancy roles if they believe an extraverted candidate is likely to leave the job due to a lack of stimulating social interaction.
Personality assessments are frequently used in combination with other psychometric tests to find candidates for a range of roles. Some of these include: